By Vilem Mathesius, Josef Vachek
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Extra info for A Functional Analysis of Present Day English on a General Linguistic Basis (Janua Linguarum. Series Practica)
Some people', 'an indefinite number of people', cf. Byli tam lide, a tak jsem nechtel mluvit [There were people there and so I didn't want to speak]). , e. people as a species. We might also add i n c l u s i v e and e x c l u s i v e plurality. Inclusive plurality includes the person addressed, whereas in an exclusive plural • i · · ···.. 1 s . < Fig. 4 CLASSIFICATION W I T H I N T H E WORD CATEGORIES 49 he is excluded. Thus in a sentence like My chceme delat to a to [We want to do this and t h a t ] the subject we may be interpreted either inclusively: tee — the persons present, i.
As regards word structure, English can form very extensive collocations, largely of the Germanic type. In translating we invariably start to analyse them from the last component (e. g. ). Especially in the intellectual variety of English found in newspapers and magazines such collocations are very common. In some cases the collocation includes not only nouns but also adverbs: the ship-to-shore telephone experiment — 'the experiment in telephoning from the ship to the shore'. A fixed substantival collocation in English is sometimes characterized by the fact that the qualifying noun morpheme, even if it has the meaning of the plural, is used without the plural ending.
These are genuine compounds fully satisfying our definition. We can also find substantival verbal expressions with a prefix t h a t is formally identical with the adverbial preposition (e. g. the outlook as against to look out, b u t also the look-out). I n contrast to quotational compounds, compounds of the stage-struck t y p e might be called s y n t h e t i z i n g . While quotational compounds are constituted b y segments of speech consisting of several words without a n y change in word order, used in another categorial function t h a n they usually perform, the nature of synthetizing compounds is different.