Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery by J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, V. V. Dolenc, J. J. A. Mooij

By J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, V. V. Dolenc, J. J. A. Mooij

This sequence, backed via the eu organization of Neurosurgical Societies, has already turn into a vintage. regularly, one quantity is released according to 12 months. The Advances part provides fields of neurosurgery and comparable components within which very important contemporary development has been made. The Technical criteria part beneficial properties targeted descriptions of normal techniques to help younger neurosurgeons of their post-graduate education. The contributions are written via skilled clinicians and are reviewed by way of all participants of the Editorial Board.

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J. Strong and R. Dardis Change in chromophore concentration (µM) (patient with frontotemporal contusion):- 5 4 3 2 Oxy-Hb 1 0 -1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 -2 -3 Deoxy-Hb -4 -5 Time (minutes) Fig. 10. (Upper panel ) Time course of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) data (oxyhaemoglobin and deoxy-haemoglobin) from the exposed rat cerebral cortex during an episode of induced CSD, verified by the changes in DC potential. Time bars are at 10 minute intervals. (Reproduced with permission from Kohl et al.

Physiol Rev 39:239–279 6. Martins-Ferreira H, Nedergaard M, Nicholson C (2000) Perspectives on spreading depression. [Review] [124 refs]. Brain Res – Brain Res Rev 32:215–234 7. Gorji A (2001) Spreading depression: a review of the clinical relevance. Brain Res Rev 38:33–60 8. Obrenovitch TP, Zilkha E, Urenjak J (1996) Evidence against high extracellular glutamate promoting the elicitation of spreading depression by potassium. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 16:923–931 9. Streit DS, Ferreira Filho CR, Martins-Ferreira H (1995) Spreading depression in isolated spinal cord.

Tower and Young compared the glia : neuron ratio with brain size in a group of mammals ranging from mice to whales and elephants, and, using a log : log plot, demonstrated a convincing hierarchy in which the glia : neuron ratio increases in proportion with brain size [80]. Primates are distributed appropriately for their brain size within this hierarchy, rather than all of them possessing a high glia : neuron ratio independent of brain size, as might be predicted on ‘‘evolutionary’’ grounds. The issue is of interest in relation to the discussion above on mechanisms of CSD propagation, and the relationship of CSD propensity with Tower and Young’s hierarchy is more in keeping with a homœostatic role for glia in the context of CSD than with one in which they propagate CSD.

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