An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language) by Francis Katamba

By Francis Katamba

This e-book is an advent to phonological conception put in the framework of contemporary mainstream generative phonology. The ebook is split into major components. the 1st introduces readers to easy strategies of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and traditional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological concept. the character and organization of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology can be explored.

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All these systems are triangular: there is a lone low (open) vowel and at least one pair of non-low vowels. 5]: [2-5] Close Half-close Open Front unrounded Back rounded i e a u o D/O (rounded/unrounded respectively) Asymmetrical systems are logically possible but occur less commonly than symmetrical ones. 6] seem to be rare in comparison with the symmetrical ones. 6] (a), i e u (b). i a E a (Cocopa (Arizona, USA)) a (Marshalese, (Marshall Islands)) Likewise, consonant systems also tend to be symmetrical.

L A T E R A L - N O N L A T E R A L [± lateral] A lateral sound is produced if the airflow through the centre of mouth is blocked and air only escapes over one or both sides of the tongue. In nonlateral sounds air flows out through the centre of the mouth. The English [1] is an example of a lateral L I Q U I D . ) Languages may have lateral sonorants, fricatives and affricates made at various places of articulation. 19. N A S A L - N O N N A S A L (ORAL) [± nasal] In the production of a nasal sound the velum is lowered to allow air to escape through the nasal cavity.

But you should come back to this chapter ot refresh your mind as the need to use features arises in later chapters. 1 Major class features The major class features define the major classes of sounds The SPE system of distinctive features 43 that are relevant in phonological analysis. The major classes include C O N S O N A N T S and N O N C O N S O N A N T S , SYLLABICS and NONSYLLABICS, SONORANTS and N O N S O N O R A N T S (OBSTRUENTS). i. C O N S O N A N T A L - N O N C O N S O N A N T A L [± cons] Consonantal sounds are produced with a drastic stricture along the centre-line of the vocal tract; nonconsonantal sounds are made without such obstruction.

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