Encyclopedia Of Materials Characterization - Surfaces, by Brundle C.R.

By Brundle C.R.

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1% in concentration. 0 cm in diameter Main use Identification of elements; determination of composition and thickness Instrument cost $50,000-$300,000 Size 5 ft. x 8 fi. 2 In Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF), the surface of a solid specimen is exposed to an X-ray beam in grazing geometry. The angle of incidence is kept below the critical angle for total reflection, which is determined by the electron density in the specimen surface layer, and is on the order of mrad. With total reflection, only a few nm of the surface layer are penetrated by the X rays, and the surface is excited to emit characteristic X-ray fluorescence radiation.

It can serve for phase identification as well as for the characterization of local bonding environments in disordered materials. 1 Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analysis is performed by bombarding a sample target with a monoenergetic beam of high-energy particles, typically helium, with an energy of a few MeV. A fraction of the incident atoms scatter backwards from heavier atoms in the near-surface region of the target material, and usually are detected with a solid state detector that measures their energy.

Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to molecular and crystal structure; applications include chemical fingerprinting, examination of single grains in ceramics and rocks, single-crystal measurements, speciation of aqueous solutions, identification of compounds in bubbles and fluid inclusions, investigations of structure and strain states in polycrystalline ceramics, glasses, fibers, gels, and thin and thick films. 3 (HREELS) In High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS), a highly monoenergetic beam of low energy (1-10 eV) electrons is focused onto a sample’s surface, and the scattered electrons are analyzed with high resolution of the scattering energy and angle.

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